It’s an inherently conservative process, with oil-rich countries like Kuwait and Saudi Arabia always trying to tone down the conclusions and emphasise uncertainties and unknowns, said Weaver. The headlines about this episode talked of suppression and would likely increase the view amongst those still skeptical about climate change. But why does that matter? ENSO, the most prominent and far-reaching patterns of climate variability, saw a huge swing in mid-2010. The U.K’s Independent newspaper described the WMO’s announcement as unprecedented and astonishing because it came from a respected United Nations organization not an environmental group! An area the size of France and Germany combined has been melting in the last 4 years. Historically Inactive NE Pacific Hurricane Season. Small update added. They were summarizing global figures compiled and published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the US. Global trade is an important feature of the modern world. The result is that humans are adding ever-increasing amounts of extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. They use the difference between the annual mean and the baseline mean to determine the global temperature anomaly for the year. Drought and desertification are starting to spread and intensify in some parts of the world already. China, whose growth has been driven by export-based industries, is usually described as the world's largest emitter of CO2, but its footprint drops by almost a fifth when its imports and exports are taken into account, putting it firmly behind the US. Rainfall related to the Asian Monsoon was displaced unusually westward, and more than a foot of rain fell across a large area of the Upper Indus Valley. The scientific consensus is just as robust, the misreporting just as widespread, the consequences even graver. Loosely defined, climate is the average weather at a distinct place that incorporates temperature, precipitation, and other features. Right to housing – We all have a right to an adequate standard of living for ourselves and our families, including adequate housing. In narrowly economic terms, a recent study saw the likely cost of 2 degrees of warming as 5 percent of GDP in India, 4 percent in Africa, but only 0.5 percent in the United States and less in China. This courseware module is part of Penn State's College of Earth and Mineral Sciences' OER Initiative. This textbook for a one-semester course in Digital Systems Design describes the basic methods used to develop “traditional” Digital Systems, based on the use of logic gates and flip flops, as well as more advanced techniques that enable the design of … While no single event can easily be attributed to climate change, as the Institute for Public Accuracy notes, this devastating typhoon demonstrates how the Global South pays the price for emissions historically from the North. When a leading scientist was asked why NOAA came out with such a statement, he suggested it was ideologically driven. Since 1909, global temperature has warmed, with the most recent years showing the highest anomalies of +0.6 oC in the past 120 years. Half of all Himalayan glaciers will be significantly reduced by 2050, leading to 23% of the population of China being deprived of the vital dry season glacial melt water source. Read next: Strengthening Australia's resilience to climate change At CSIRO, we solve the greatest challenges through innovative science and technology. One of the authors points out that, Climate change is disrupting natural ecosystems in a way that is making life better for infectious diseases. ANTH 107. According to NOAA, the globally-averaged temperature for 2010 will finish among the two warmest, and likely the warmest, on record. This is how one mum found a way to talk to her kids honestly, without making them panic. So up until now, perhaps it has been easier for skeptics to deny climate change is occurring or that humans are responsible. Furthermore, Where scientists’ points of view on climate policy align with those of the administration, however, there are few signs of restrictions on extracurricular lectures or writing. Running out of resources should therefore be averted. The Health Effects of Climate Change Harvardx on edX Issued ... Coursera Course Certificates Issued Jun 2020. But once the carbon cost of imports have been added to each country, and exports subtracted – the true change has been an increase of 7%. In fact, sulphur based gas, originating from industry, discovered in 2000 is thought to be the most potent greenhouse gas measured to date. The previously 15 member-nations European Union (E.U. The impacts on ocean biological diversity and ecosystem functioning will likely be severe, though the precise timing and distribution of these impacts are uncertain. Malaysia Sustainable Cities Practicum. Goals & Objectives. It collects, evaluates and synthesises scientific data. This change was first announced in October 2015, and went live in January 2016. 2009). This is why our Climate Course explains the scientific basis of climate change, the impacts on nature and society, and identifies potential solutions – so that fact-based knowledge is … This wouldn’t be so objectionable if the BBC made it clear that these people are not climatologists, and the overwhelming majority of qualified scientific opinion is against them. German Watch published a Global Climate Risk Index at the end of 2011 listing nations that would be affected the most from climate change based on extreme weather such as hurricanes and floods. Where possible, alternative links are provided to backups or reposted versions here. Filter by Level. Rapidly rising greenhouse gas concentrations are driving ocean systems toward conditions not seen for millions of years, with an associated risk of fundamental and irreversible ecological transformation. Throughout the 1990s, especially in the United States, but in other countries as well, those who would try and raise the importance of this issue, and suggest that we are perhaps over-consuming, or unsustainably using our resources etc, were faced with a lot of criticism and ridicule. We would surely describe the newspapers and the BBC as grossly irresponsible. A summary of the video here says that. (The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said in its 1990 report that a 60% reduction in emissions was needed…). Between 1991 and 2010 they found these were the most affected nations: Much of Asia, as well as wealthier areas such as the US, Russia and Australia have also experienced specific incidents of very damaging extreme weather that the climate risk index captures: Into 2013, November saw possibly the largest ever typhoon, Hiayan, make landfall and cause incredible devastation to parts of the Philippines with at least 10,000 feared dead and more than 9 million affected. Drought and erratic rainfall force women to work harder to secure food, water and energy for their homes. It is called trifluoromethyl sulphur pentafluoride (SF5CF3). As a result, resources are supposedly infinite. Despite attempts to discredit global warming concerns, the Bush Administration has now conceded that there is climate change and that humans are contributing to it, but Panorama reports that a lot of vital time has been lost, and that some scientists fear US policy may be too slow to carry out. The links below provide an outline of the material for this lesson. As the Global Biodiversity Outlook report explains, the water is some 30% more acidic than pre-industrial times, depleting carbonate ions — the building blocks for many marine organisms. A persistent drought centered in the Yunan Province was touted as perhaps the worst in this region in more than 100 years. The Guardian adds that one giant container ship can emit almost the same amount of cancer and asthma-causing chemicals as 50 million cars. However, there is no intuitive approach to the problem. deforestation, forest fires, clearing land, agricultural activities, etc). But these [skeptics and illogical points against climate change] are rather less dangerous than the BBC, and its insistence on balancing its coverage of climate change. Every few years, leading climate scientists at the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have released major, definitive reports detailing the progress in understanding climate change. Stanford's Introduction to Food and Health Coursera … All these changes have led geologists to propose the … Throughout Earth’s history the climate has varied, sometimes considerably. Rather, it can only be grasped through scientific knowledge. Much of the increase in emissions in the developed world is due to the US, which promised a 7% cut under Kyoto but then did not to ratify the protocol. Doesn’t recent record cold weather disprove Global Warming? While on the positive side there is less soot these days and perhaps easier to control if needed, alone, as one of the scientists of the study commented, It does not change the need to slow down the growth rate of carbon dioxide and eventually stabilize the atmospheric amount. You will explore and learn about some of the major and current Global Health Challenges at the Human-Animal-Ecosystem Interface: zoonotic emerging infections (e.g. Europe achieved a 6% cut in CO2 emissions, but when outsourcing is considered that is reduced to 1%. Climate change will disproportionately affect the developing world, hitting India and Africa especially hard. Some marine creatures are growing thinner shells or skeletons, for example. But, as well as growing acceptance, there is also louder vocal opposition, and the repeated nonsense and logical fallacies that Schmidt was concerned about seems to have had an effect upon the general public — in the US, anyway; fewer Americans believe in global warming (as the Washington Post headlined it. It was released shortly after the elections were over. Climate Change and Social Inequality 1 Introduction Inequality has been a persistent issue in the climate change discussion. climate change and adaptation 8 2.1 the need for adaptation 8 2.2 adaptation and the unfccc 10 iii. There is abundant evidence of an unprecedented number of severe weather events in the past decade, [professor of biological oceanography at Harvard University, James] McCarthy says. However, it has long been argued that prices don’t truly reflect the full cost of things, so either the signal is incorrect, or comes too late. Climate scientists admit that the chances of the world keeping average global temperature at current levels are not going to be possible (humanity has done little to address things in the past couple of decades that these concerns have been known about). 01 Feb. 2015. unfccc climate change: impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptation in developing countries i. introduction 5 ii. The other difference between the natural carbon cycle and human-induced climate change is that the latter is rapid. Climate change is scary, and it can be really distressing for children. Also added a graphic about the economic costs of inaction vs action. Our free courses help you maintain mental health, and think about future career options, creating opportunity in adversity... Start learning. Imagine that every time new evidence emerged, they asked someone with no medical qualifications to write a piece dismissing the evidence and claiming that there was no consensus on the issue. Dec 6, 2012 - Explore Maya Zuhl's board "Coursera" on Pinterest. This then has an impact on various local social, political and economic issues. the arts and science of relationships coursera. Hiayan struck just days before the start of a major UN conference on climate change perhaps acting as a wakeup call to the negotiators regarding potential impacts of inaction. Massive open online courses are the educational happening of the moment. When talking about climate change with long-term consequences, using a 1.4% discount rate will allow us to adapt our policies to take climate change into account and assign a better value to any loss associated with climate change which will occur in 30, 40 or 50 years. Resources that could be available more indefinitely, become finite because of our inability or unwillingness to change. This increases the odds of major storms. Changes in biological function in the ocean caused by anthropogenic climate change go far beyond death, extinctions and habitat loss: fundamental processes are being altered, community assemblages are being reorganized and ecological surprises are likely. Some have described the Arctic as the canary in the coal mine, referring to how canary birds used to be taken deep down coal mines. FindAPhD. Following the early and pronounced snow melt, the North American, Eurasian and Hemispheric snow cover was the smallest on record for May and June 2010. Get help with your earth and space science homework right here! (By contrast, the Bush administration’s policy is to use voluntary measures to slow, but not reverse, the growth of emissions.). As environmental engineer, D Kelly O’Day, explained on ProcessingTrends.com (link no longer available): To facilitate assessments of long term trends, climatologists compare the mean for a base period with the annual mean. A NASA’s GISS animation also shows how most parts of the world have experienced this warming, recently: And, as Sir David Attenborough explains, natural variability alone does not explain recent temperature rise: As well as the links above, see also Skeptical Science, which, while examining the arguments of global warming skepticism, provides information on causes of anthropogenic global warming. NewScientist.com reports (December 22, 2003) on a study that suggests soot particles may be worse than carbon dioxide in contributing to global warming. Their definition of very high confidence and very likely is a 90% chance of being correct. The John A. Dutton e-Education Institute is the learning design unit of the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at The Pennsylvania State University. This survey aims to identify key factors, challenges and barriers faced to environmental and climate conscious behavior. These lists were compiled and voted on during the first week of December. Added additional notes and multimedia on ocean acidification as well as further indicators of a warming world with human causes. Like almost all the prominent sceptics he has never published a peer-reviewed paper on climate change. It is man-made and it is essentially [caused by] fossil fuel burning, increased methane production… and so on. However. Is that too late or will it be okay? Aug 17, 2020 - Explore answersQ's board "coursera peer graded assignments" on Pinterest. Usually this is either someone from a corporate-funded thinktank (who is, of course, never introduced as such) or the professional anti-environmentalist Philip Stott. The iconic polar bear at the top of that food chain is therefore not the only species at risk even though it may get more media attention. For the second consecutive year, in 2003. Anita Roddick: Corporate Social Responsibility? A severe drought parching northern Brazil shrunk the Rio Negro, one of the Amazon River's most important tributaries, to its lowest level since records began in 1902 at its confluence with the Amazon. … The understanding of anthropogenic warming and cooling influences on climate has improved since the Third Assessment Report (TAR), leading to very high confidence that the globally averaged net effect of human activities since 1750 has been one of warming. Added small note about emissions from shipping. D. Salmons also has a post at Skeptical Science that explains the impact of warming Arctic’s relation to the very cold recent winters further, using the following NASA map: the Arctic has been heating up, and studies show that is happening at two to three times the global average. D-Lab: Water, Climate Change, and Health. After working in mental health and education for 20 years, I’ve learned that nobody likes being told what to do. A US government hearing in the US is also pursuing this further as the seriousness of climate change is becoming more accepted. The Northeast Pacific Hurricane Season was one of the least active on record, produced the fewest named storms and hurricanes of the modern era, and had the earliest cessation of tropical activity (Sep 23) on record. 335 no. This lobby group included interests from the coal, electricity, aluminum (aluminium), petroleum, minerals and cement industries. ), if considered as a whole (for it is more comparable to the U.S.): The Kyoto Protocol was the climate change treaty negotiated in 1997, setting targets for emissions of greenhouse gases. But he has made himself available to dismiss climatologists’ peer-reviewed work as the lies of ecofundamentalists. According to standard data, developed countries can claim to have reduced their collective emissions by almost 2% between 1990 and 2008. A report in the journal Science in June 2002 described the alarming increase in the outbreaks and epidemics of diseases throughout the land and ocean based wildlife due to climate changes. For more detailed information, the following sites can be useful: As revealed towards the end of January 2006, NASA’s top climate scientist said NASA and the Bush Administration tried to silence him. The atmospheric increase of CO2 from 2011 to 2012 was higher than its average growth rate over the past ten years. Loosely defined, climate is the average weather at a distinct place that incorporates temperature, precipitation, and … Corrections to those headlines have been few, and less prominent, by comparison. How is this any different? Also updated the warmest periods section and asked why recent weather such as extreme cold is still a sign of global warming. Even just a 2°C increase can have impacts around the world to biodiversity, agriculture, the oceans etc (detailed further below). Instead, it leaves us with the impression that professional opinion is split down the middle. In some cases, improved agricultural techniques may help, such as rainwater harvesting and drip irrigation. Also added more information about the relationship between climate change and colder weather in the northern hemisphere. It has been known for some time know that developing countries will be affected the most. the arts and science of relationships coursera answers. Older members of the indigenous Inuit people describe how weather patterns have shifted and changed in recent years, while they also face challenges to their way of life in the form of increased commercial interest in the arctic region. It is feared that globally, there will be mass migrations in the future as climate change makes conditions worse in some regions of the world, and these challenges will play itself out on a much larger scale, with much more human movement. Amid the uncertainty, I’m honored to be able to support Coursera’s partner community as it has come together to serve the world through learning as part of our Coronavirus Response Initiatives . (Shipping is responsible for 3.5% to 4% of all climate change emissions the Guardian also notes.). c. What are the environmental health effects that could be caused by global warming? expanded side notes, shows alternative links), use the print version: Energy from the sun drives the earth’s weather and climate, and heats the earth’s surface; In turn, the earth radiates energy back into space; Some atmospheric gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases) trap some of the outgoing energy, retaining heat somewhat like the glass panels of a greenhouse; These gases are therefore known as greenhouse gases; The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature on Earth as certain gases in the atmosphere trap energy. The BBC noted back in 2005 that this outsourcing was already taking place, but this idea started way before the Kyoto Protocol came into being. By halting the loss of green and blue carbon, the world could mitigate as much as 25% of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with co-benefits for biodiversity, food security and livelihoods (IPCC 2007, Nellemann et al. Furthermore, as emissions of greenhouse gases continue to trap more and more of the sun’s energy, that energy has to be dissipated, resulting in stronger storms, more intense precipitation and higher winds. One example of recent findings is a tiny sand grain-sized plankton responsible for the sequestration of 25–50% of the carbon the oceans absorb is affected by increasing ocean acidification. An online training course on Global Health at the Human-Animal-Ecosystem Interface. In South Asia, the Himalayan glaciers could retreat causing water scarcity in the long run. CLIMATE CHANGE: PERSPECTIVES fRoM INdIA Climate Change Pre-words Climate Change Perspectives from India Climate change is no more an environmental concern. Mentioned further above was the concern that more hurricanes could result. Sir David chose his words carefully. NASA’s Earth Observatory is worth quoting the effect human activity is having on the natural carbon cycle, for example: In addition to the natural fluxes of carbon through the Earth system, anthropogenic (human) activities, particularly fossil fuel burning and deforestation, are also releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. There has been a similar concern in Australia. Print. Scientists have found that oceans are able to absorb some of the excess CO2 released by human activity. An increase of ozone destruction increases the UV-radiation that, combined with higher ocean temperature, causes a reduction of the gigantic carbon dioxide trapping mechanism of the oceanic phytoplankton biomass; When the warming has reached a certain level, it will release huge amounts of greenhouse gasses trapped in the permafrost. Coursera Archive. For decades, greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide have been increasing in the atmosphere. The issue is not smoking, but climate change. See IRIN’s videos on climate change impacts in Africa and Asia for more short clips. Causes of Climate Change. Human activity has caused an imbalance in the natural cycle of the greenhouse effect and related processes. GISS uses the 1951 - 1980 period for their baseline period. These facts bear on questions of distributive justice, even apart from the … A learner is required to successfully complete & submit these tasks also to earn a certificate for the same. In addition, Western Siberia has warmed faster than almost anywhere else on the planet, with an increase in average temperatures of some 3°C in the last 40 years. (And if Western attitudes towards immigration are negative now, they could be even worse in the future.). Ove Hoegh-Guldberg NCSE talk on climate change impacts on ocean ecosystems, Climate Shifts, January 21, 2011.. Climate Week NYC (from September 24-30 this year) has been expanding the conversation … He was due to give an interview about his work but claims he was gagged. Only 1973, 1983 and 1998 have seen larger within-year swings. (More about the Kyoto Protocol, U.S. and others’ actions/inactions is discussed in subsequent pages on this section.). More recently, Brazil was struck by the first-ever recorded hurricane in the South Atlantic last March. Peer-reviewed papers provide a reliable and quality-assured source of information on climate change science. Most global warming is going into the oceans, Small average global temperature change can have a big impact, Failing Agricultural Output; Increase in World Hunger, Agriculture and livelihoods are already being affected, Women face brunt of climate change impacts, Greenhouse gases and emissions resulting from human activity, Differences in Greenhouse Gas Emission Around the World, The United States is the World’s Largest Emitter of Greenhouse Gases Per Capita, The previously 15-member European Union is also large Emitter, Stalling Kyoto Protocol Gets Push by Russia, Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, Skepticism on Global Warming or That it can be human-induced, Bush Administration Accused of Silencing its own Climate Scientists, Many Sources Of Greenhouse Gases Being Discovered, Warming happening more quickly than predicted, Past Decade Warmest on Record According to Scientists in 48 Countries, 10 Indicators of a Human Fingerprint on Climate Change, NASA Finds 2014 Warmest Year in Modern Record, Sir David Attenborough: The Truth About Climate Change, increasing temperatures can actually mean more snowfall, it can take decades for the climate temperatures to increase in response to increased greenhouse gas emissions, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, Infographic on where global warming is going, The world’s northern freezer is on rapid defrost as large volumes of warm water are pouring into the Arctic Ocean, speeding the melt of sea ice, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg NCSE talk on climate change impacts on ocean ecosystems, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for Annual 2014, skeptical that temperature rises can be contained to a 2°C rise (or C0, The impact of a global temperature rise of 4ºC (7 ºF), web site for Copenhagen talks related activities, Longer spells of dry heat or intense rain, Northern Europe could be severely affected, Global Warming May Spawn More Super-Storms, Top Ten Global Weather/Climate Events of 2010, World-wide cooperation required to prevent global crisis; Part one—the problem, many cities are unprepared for climate change effects, a tiny sand grain-sized plankton responsible for the sequestration of 25–50% of the carbon the oceans absorb is affected by increasing ocean acidification, ocean acidification is unparalleled in the last 300 million years, the alarming increase in the outbreaks and epidemics of diseases, One in six countries in the world face food shortages this year because of severe droughts, rising temperatures will have a significant impact upon crop yields, Western attitudes towards immigration are negative, political and economic causes of world hunger, Facing a changing world: women, population and climate, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis; Summary for Policymakers, contrast between developed/industrialized nations and poorer developing countries, The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB), The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for National and International Policy Makers 2009, the United States was the world’s largest emitter, emissions from EU countries have actually increased, Canada pulled out of the Kyoto climate treaty, between 2000 and 2006, greenhouse gas emissions have generally increased by 2.3%, LULUCF emission reductions are not reliable, China, which now claims at least one third of its emissions are because of production for others, cuts by developed countries since 1990 have been canceled out by increases in imported goods from developing countries, global figures compiled and published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the US, Carbon cuts by developed countries cancelled out by imported goods, Asian countries have been cutting emissions faster than Europe and the US, the US has seen a drop in carbon emissions, the Global South pays the price for emissions historically from the North, the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere reached a new record high in 2012, fewer Americans believe in global warming. 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