The town was laid out in a regular plan, with mud-brick town walls on three sides. They also served as doorway lintels as early as the third millennium BCE, most famously decorating the home of Old Kingdom architect Hemon. In contrast to the Pyramid Texts, which focus on the celestial realm, the Coffin Texts emphasize the subterranean elements of the afterlife ruled by Osiris in a place called the Duat. Egyptians were well known for their stelae, the earliest of which date back to the mid- to late third millennium BCE. They were generally distinguished from other statuettes by being inscribed with the name of the deceased, his titles, and often with spells from the Coffin Texts. Block statue. Stelae are stone slabs that are inscribed, carved, or painted with imagery or text. In contrast to elitist Old Kingdom attitudes towards the gods, the Middle Kingdom experienced an increase in expressions of personal piety and what could be called a democratization of the afterlife. Change ). Among the tombs built during this time are Amenemhat I’s funerary monument at El-Lisht; Sesostris I’s funerary monument; Amenemhat III’s pyramid at Hawara, which includes an elaborate labyrinth complex; and Sesostris II’s pyramid at Illahun. Mentuhotep II was the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom , restoring stability after a period of pharaonic weakness and civil war. One of the innovations in sculpture that occurred during the Middle Kingdom was the block statue, which would continue to be popular through to the Ptolemaic age almost 2,000 years later. Which answer best decribes the block statue seen during the Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt? Male figures squatting with their knees drawn up to their chests. While some funerary stelae were in the form of slab stelae, this funerary stelae of a bowman named Semin (c. 2120-2051 BCE) appears to have been a traditional vertical stelae. Quartzite. One of the innovations in sculpture that occurred during the Middle Kingdom was the block statue, which would continue to be popular through to the Ptolemaic age almost 2,000 years later. and clay instead of stone. The larger area, which was higher up the slope and thus benefited from whatever breeze was blowing, contained a much smaller number of large, multi-room villas, indicating perhaps a class separation between workers and overseers. Hieroglyphic and pictorial carvings in brilliant colors were abundantly used to decorate Egyptian structures, and motifs such as the scarab, sacred beetle, solar disk, and vulture were common. The walls of the fort were about five meters thick and ten meters high . Later in the New Kingdom, the Chapel was demolished; however, the dismantled pieces were discovered in the 1920s and carefully assembled into the building that is seen today. Mar 1, 2017 - Examples of Egyptian Block Statues. As in the Old Kingdom, stone was most often reserved for tombs and temples, while bricks were used for palaces, fortresses, everyday houses, and town walls. Block statues consist of a man squatting with his knees drawn up to his chest and his arms folded on top his knees. This is often interpreted as a portrayal of the burden of power and kingship. Much of what we know of the kingdoms and administrations of Egyptian kings are from the public and private stelae that recorded bureaucratic titles and other administrative information. It would continue to be a mainstay of Egyptian art for 2,000 years. 1850–1640 B.C. The scarab was also used as a holder or medium for personal name seals. Block statue. His military campaigns gave rise to an era of peace and economic prosperity that not only reduced the power of regional rulers, but also led to a revival in craftwork, trade, and urban development in the Egyptian kingdom. Kahun (also known as El-Lahun), for example, is a village that was associated with the pyramid of Senusret II. At its peak, it probably had a population of around 3500 people. For much of Egyptian history, including the Middle Kingdom , obelisks erected in pairs were used to mark the entrances of temples. The reign of Amenemhat III is known for its exploitation of resources and construction of the so-called “Black Pyramid .”. See more ideas about ancient egyptian, ancient, egyptian. Images and text were intimately interwoven and inscribed, carved in relief , or painted on the stelae. tombs, which are a type of burial structure formed from graves built Strictly non-royal they are representations of a noble class with inscriptions to be read to keep their memory alive. Made for tombs or as intercessory statues for temples, they functioned as symbols of the deceased’s religious piety and his hope for rebirth. ( Log Out /  Unlike the Old Kingdom, however, Middle Kingdom royal pyramids were not quite as well constructed, and so few of them remain as pyramid structures today. The block statue was one of the master innovations during the Egypt Middle Kingdom through which a man squatting with his knees drawn up to his chest and his arms folded on top of his knees. The White Chapel: The White Chapel of Senusret I at Karnak is a good example of the fine quality of art and architecture produced during the Twelfth Dynasty. Medium: Diorite. After his victories, Senusret III built a series of massive forts throughout the country to establish the formal boundary between Egyptian conquests and unconquered Nubia. A modern imitation of an ancient Egyptian scarab amulet: Scarabs were often included in tombs along with other burial goods as protectors of written products. Its columns were intricately decorated with reliefs of a very high quality. Whereas the natural curve of the eyebrows dips towards the root of the nose, the artificial eyebrows in low relief are absolutely straight above the inner corners of the eyes, a feature which places the bust early in the early Twelfth Dynasty. ThreeStatuesOfSesotrisIII-RightProfiles-BritishMuseum-August19-08. Funerary stelae were generally built in honor of the deceased and decorated with their names and titles. Paintings were done in … Describe the major building projects initiated during Egypt’s Middle Kingdom. Date: ca. There are two types of block statues: statues with the feet completely covered with a cloak and statues with the feet uncovered. The head of the sculpture contains the most detail. The stelae of Ancient Egypt served many purposes, from funerary, to marking territory, to publishing decrees. Which answer best decribes the block statue seen during the Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt? Block statues consist of a man squatting with his knees drawn up to his chest and his arms folded on top of his knees. With its body folded inside his robe into a box-like shape. Ankhwennefer is shown squatting on the ground. Innovation, decline, and revival from the New Kingdom to the Late period Excellence of craftsmanship is the hallmark of 18th-dynasty sculpture, in a revival of the best traditions of the Middle Kingdom. Mirror with Papyriform Handle, Middle Kingdom, twelfth dynasty, circa 1938, 1759 BC. Department of Religion at Syracuse University. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. From Asyut, Egypt. Senusret III is considered to be perhaps the most powerful Egyptian ruler of the dynasty and led the kingdom to an era of peace and prosperity. The sculpture pictured below—the fact that a private woman could have a sculpture made for herself—speaks volumes for the equality of gender in ancient Egypt. As the pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom restored the country’s prosperity and stability, they stimulated a resurgence of art, literature, and monumental building projects, including tombs and burial goods . This wall divided about one third of the area of the town, and in this smaller area the houses consisted of rows of back-to-back, side-by-side single room houses. The fortress also included the administration for the whole fortified region. Shabtis were created to act as the deceased’s servants, performing the manual labor necessary for the plentiful existence of the afterlife. The 12th-dynasty block statue of Sihathor is the earliest dated example. Egyptian funerary figurines louvre 180flip. Stelae are stone slabs that served many purposes, from funerary, to marking territory, to publishing decrees. Around 1900 BCE, these artificial eyebrows, too, began to follow the natural curve and dipped toward the nose. Block Statue of Shebenhor ... with their cloaks drawn over the feet and their arms crossed were a frequent Egyptian sculptural type since the Middle Kingdom (ca. This would also be the first time in Ancient Egyptian history where writing would become a form of entertainment in stories as well as philosophy. Many stelae were used as territorial markers to delineate land ownership. … When Egypt had military and political security and vast agricultural and mineral wealth, its architecture flourished. This shape of statue, known as a block statue, was popular for the large amount of surface area that could be dedicated to inscriptions. It is almost pure quartz and, as such, harder than granite. As seen in the image below, Coffin Texts could appear as paintings or inscriptions on the inside of the coffin. The inscription also includes a funerary offering prayer invoking Isis of Coptos. Funerary stelae of the bowman Semin: Funerary stelae were usually inscribed with the name and title of the deceased, along with images or hieroglyphs. One of the innovations in sculpture that occurred during the Middle Kingdom was the block statue, which would continue to be popular through to the Ptolemaic age almost 2,000 years later. Compare and contrast the tombs and burial goods of the Middle Kingdom with those of the Old Kingdom. Egyptian block statues, are a distinctive statue type first seen in the middle kingdom and were designed to last an eternity. Deviating from the standard way of representing kings, Senusret III and his successor Amenemhat III had themselves portrayed as mature, aging men. Egyptian block statues, are a distinctive statue type first seen in the middle kingdom and were designed to last an eternity. Block Statue representing Senbef, Late Period, beginning of the 26th dynasty, ca. One of the few kings who were deified and honored with a cult during their own lifetime, he is considered to be perhaps the most powerful Egyptian ruler of the dynasty. Discuss the sculptural innovations during Egypt’s Middle Kingdom. The reign of Amenemhat III is especially known for its exploitation of resources, in which mining camps—previously only used by intermittent expeditions—were operated on a semi-permanent basis. Workers’ villages were often built nearby to pyramid construction sites. This realm is described as containing threatening beings, traps, and snares for which the deceased must be prepared. Scarabs were popular amulets believed to be protectors of written products. male figures squatting with their knees drawn up to their chests. In this case, and invocation is directed at the god Ptah-Sokar. ( Log Out /  Royal funerary practices in the Middle Kingdom remained much the same as in the Old Kingdom, with kings continuing to build pyramids for their burials. In this worldview , all people possessed a soul and could be welcomed into the company of the gods after death. Since the Middle Kingdom this statuary type, called a "block statue," served to represent non-royal persons in a general context of solar beliefs. Another important innovation in sculpture that occurred during the Middle Kingdom was the block statue, which would continue to be popular through to the Ptolemaic age almost 2,000 years later. RedGraniteHeadOfSesostrisIII-BritishMuseum-August19-08. In the Old Kingdom, the Pyramid Texts, which contained spells to help the dead reach the afterlife successfully, were only accessible to the elite. Eye of protection featuring Nekhbet and Wadjet $20.24 Egyptian art / statue & relief sculpture Bast cat - Tadukhippa and the sculptor $ 198.73 $283.91 Egyptian block statue - museum replica sculpture. This type could be found in either a tomb or temple (and one is even known from a chapel at Abydos - again these contexts are all related in the Middle Kingdom). Burial goods continued to be commonplace in tombs. It is one of the five remaining pyramids of the original eleven pyramids at Dahshur in Egypt. The Middle Kingdom's art developed during this time such as block statue art, statues made from a single block of material. A man is sitting with his knees drawn up to his chest and his arms folded around his knees. The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt following a period of political division known as the First Intermediate Period.The Middle Kingdom lasted from approximately 2050 to 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the reign of Mentuhotep II in the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. Starting in the First Intermediate period, wooden models became very popular, often depicting everyday activities that the deceased expected to continue doing in the afterlife. As the pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom restored the country’s prosperity and stability, there was a resurgence of building projects. While many statues portray him as a vigorous young man, others deviate from this standard and illustrate him as mature and aging. The huge number of stelae surviving from ancient Egypt constitute one of the largest and most significant sources of information on those civilizations . While most were taller than they were wide, slab stelae took a horizontal dimension . Some small scale sculpture has been found in houses. The White Chapel, also referred to as the Jubilee Chapel, is one of the finest examples of architecture during this time. Watching Block Statue (Ancient Egypt Middle Kingdom) Posted on February 1, 2016 by zjb. The arms and legs may be wholly contained within the cubic form, hands and feet alone discretely protruding. Stelophor of Sa-Iset Stelophor des Sa-Iset Dynasty 18, 1550- 1292 BC Limestone, painted 30 x 14,5 x 17,5 cm Inv.-No. 1860–1814 BCE). Another important innovation in sculpture that occurred during the Middle Kingdom was the block statue, which would continue to be popular through to the Ptolemaic age almost 2,000 years later. Grand tombs in the form of pyramids continued to be built throughout the Middle Kingdom, along with villages, cities, and forts. The Karnak Temple Complex is an example of fine architecture that was begun during the Middle Kingdom and continued through the Ptolemaic period. A major feature of the town was the so-called “acropolis” building; its column bases suggest its importance. Funerary stelae were generally built in honor of the deceased and decorated with their names and titles. Typical for Middle Kingdom pyramids, Block statues consist of a man squatting with his knees drawn up to his chest and his arms folded on top his knees. They are large in keeping with the ancient Egyptian ideal of beauty; the same ideal required small breasts, and in this respect, the sculpture is no exception. Often, these men are wearing a wide cloak that reduces the body of the figure to a simple block-like shape. In this statue, it is generally assumed that a guardian is seated in the gateway of a temple. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Innovations during the Middle Kingdom included the solemnity evident in portraits of Senusret III and block statues. Architects carefully planned all their work, fitting their stones and bricks precisely together. It is almost pure quartz and, as such, harder than granite. Literature had new uses during the Middle Kingdom, and many classics were written during the period. Its fortifications included a moat three meters deep, drawbridges, bastions, buttresses , ramparts, battlements, loopholes, and a catapult. There are two types of block statues: statues with the feet completely covered with a … Block Statue of Senwosret-senebnefny. Which of the following is NOT true of Egyptian art of The New Kingdom period? The block statue was one of the master innovations during the Egypt Middle Kingdom through which a man squatting with his knees drawn up to his chest and his arms folded on top of his knees. ), Sandstone, paint, 7 7/8 in Galerie Chenel ... Sculpture of Osiris, 720 BC to 300 BC. In the Christian west, devotion tends to be identified with the erect figure of the orant who extends his or arms towards the heavens in an act of supplication. Hieroglyphic and pictorial carvings in brilliant colors were abundantly used to decorate Egyptian structures. Sculpture was mainly placed in temples or tombs. Block Statue of Shebenhor ... with their cloaks drawn over the feet and their arms crossed were a frequent Egyptian sculptural type since the Middle Kingdom (ca. The ground-level structures consist of the Quartzite. The obelisk was the symbol and perceived place of existence of the sun god Ra. 2000 BCE). Compare in contrast this fellow from ancient Egypt, Middle Kinddom. While burial goods continued to be common, objects of daily use were not typically included as they were in the Old Kingdom. Describe the purposes of stelae in ancient Egyptian art. From Asyut, Egypt. Mud was collected from the nearby Nile River, placed in molds, and left to dry and harden in the hot sun until they formed bricks for construction. Example of a block statue: Block statues of the Middle Kingdom consisted of a man squatting with his knees drawn up to his chest. Other new objects were introduced toward the end of the Middle Kingdom as well, including the first shabtis (also known as ushabtis) and the first scarabs. Made for tombs or as intercessory statues for temples, they functioned as symbols of the deceased’s religious piety and his hope for rebirth. Dynasty: Dynasty 12, late–early 13. Coffin Texts evolved from the previous Pyramid texts of the Old Kingdom, expanding and introducing spells that were more relatable to nobles and non-royal Egyptians. The block statue 1 is a type of memorial statue that first emerged in the Middle Kingdom, 2 the block statue grew in popularity in the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period, and by the Late Period, this type of statue was the most common. In this statue, it is generally assumed that a guardian is seated in the gateway of a temple. A man is sitting with his knees drawn up to his chest and his arms folded around his knees. BLOCK STATUES OF THE EGYPTIAN MIDDLE KINGDOM I. IPEPY'S FUNERARY MONUMENT by Bernard V. Bothmer The golden-brown quartzite from the quarries of the Gebel Ahmar near modern Cairo was one of the rarer rocks employed by the ancient Egyptians for their statuary. ); W. 8.7 cm (3 7/16 in. The change in representation as ideological, and not something to be interpreted as the portrayal of an aging king, is shown by the fact that in one single relief, Senusret III was represented as a vigorous young man, following the centuries old tradition, and as a mature aging king. Slab stelae, when used for funerary purposes, were commonly commissioned by dignitaries and their wives. 2000 BCE). Quartzite, 26 7 ⁄ 8 x 16 5 ⁄ 16 x 18 1 ⁄ 8 in. 315px-Head_and_Torso_of_a_Noblewoman,_ca._1844-1837_B.C.E._59.1.jpg. Bust of an Official LACMA AC1992.152.45.jpg 1,569 × 2,100; 527 KB Obelisk of Senusret I: This obelisk is one half of a pair that originally marked the entrance to the temple of the sun god Ra. Paintings were done in … A type of sculpture called the "block statue" became popular. Only the head, hands and feet emerge from a cloak that he has drawn tightly around his body. Obelisks , special forms of boundary stelae, were erected in pairs to mark the entrances of temples. walls. These would become staples of Egyptian art culture for the next 2,000 years. Unlike the Old Kingdom, objects of daily use were not often included in the tombs; however, they reappeared toward the end of the Middle Kingdom. One of the innovations in sculpture that occurred during the Middle Kingdom was the block statue, which would continue to be popular through to the Ptolemaic Kingdom almost 2,000 years later. description In Egyptian art and architecture: Refinements of the Middle Kingdom …to its ultimate in the block statue, a uniquely Egyptian type that represents the subject squatting on the ground with knees drawn up close to his body. Due to the limited writing surfaces of some of these objects, the spells were often abbreviated, giving rise to long and short versions. … Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Ariadne Galleries. Used from the Middle Kingdom until the end of the Ptolemaic Period nearly 2000 years later, most shabtis were of a small size, often covering the floor around a sarcophagus . The Karnak Temple Complex is an example of fine architecture that was begun during the Middle Kingdom and continued through the Ptolemaic period. The Middle Kingdom (2134-1690 BCE) was a time of prosperity and stability, as well as a resurgence of art, literature, and architecture.Block statue was a new type of sculpture invented in the Middle Kingdom, and was often used as a funerary monument. Unknown Egyptian. Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 39.602 509px-Louvre-antiquites-egyptiennes-p1020391.jpg. In his sixth year, he re-dredged an Old Kingdom canal around the first cataract to facilitate travel to upper Nubia, using this to launch a series of brutal campaigns. ... Block statue of Senenmut, Royal Tutor to Princess Neferure Shown with the princess, who wears a uraeus New Kingdom. The construction of pyramids declined toward the end of the Twelfth Dynasty , as instability led to the decline of the Middle Kingdom. One of the major developments in royal statues over the Old and Middle Kingdoms was the move to … Another important innovation in sculpture that occurred during the Middle Kingdom was the block statue, which would continue to be popular through to the Ptolemaic age almost 2,000 years later. The head sits atop and wordlessly watches with a long look from a seated position. The earliest Egyptian stelae date back to the mid- to late third millennium BCE. Coffin Texts, as they are called by the scholars, expanded upon the Pyramid Texts, introducing new spells and incorporating slight changes to make them more relatable to the nobility. Originally named Amenemhet is Mighty, the pyramid earned the name “Black Pyramid” for its dark, decaying appearance as a rubble mound. Period: Middle Kingdom. Buhen was the northernmost of a line of forts within signaling distance of one another. The earliest temple obelisk still in its original position is the red granite Obelisk of Senusret I (Twelfth Dynasty) at Al-Matariyyah in modern Heliopolis. (68.3 × 41.5 × 46 cm). Black Pyramid of Amenemhat III: Middle Kingdom pyramids consist of mud brick and clay encased in limestone. Aristocratic women’s role as art patrons during the Middle Kingdom speaks to their high status and gender equality. ( Log Out /  Compare in contrast this fellow from ancient Egypt, Middle Kinddom. [93] Block statues consist of a man squatting with his knees drawn up to … Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. From The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Unknown Egyptian, Head from a Statue of King Amenhotep I (ca. Example of a block statue: Block statues of the Middle Kingdom consisted of a man squatting with his knees drawn up to his chest. Senusret III is known for his construction of massive forts to defend the region after his many military campaigns. Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Politics & Liberal Christianity (Hillary Clinton), Watching Block Statue (Ancient Egypt Middle Kingdom). The most famous of these would be used at Amarna during the New Kingdom under Akhenaten. Strictly non-royal they are representations of a noble class with inscriptions to be read to keep their memory alive. After toppling the last rulers of the Tenth Dynasty, Mentuhotep II began consolidating his power over all Egypt, completing the process circa 2000 BCE. His subjects considered him to be divine or semi-divine, as suggested in a relief depicting the pharaoh receiving offerings . This shape of statue is known as a block statue, a form which first appeared in the Middle Kingdom (c. … Block statue is a memorial statue discovered in the Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. Grand and royal tombs continued to be built for the deceased during the prosperous Middle Kingdom. Mentuhotep II restored stability in 2041 BCE after launching an attack that met with little resistance. Shabtis were funerary figurines placed in tombs of the deceased to help them in the afterlife. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The Middle Kingdom however uses the cubic style and presents the human body as a block: For example, the crouched statue of Si-Hathor, with his cloak wrapped around him. Built by Senusret I, it was comprised of a vast mix of temples, chapels, pylons , and other buildings. The fortress itself extended more than 150 meters along the west bank of the Nile, covering 13,000 square meters, and had within its wall a small town laid out in a grid system. [71] Block statues consist of a man squatting with his knees drawn up to his chest and his arms folded on top his knees. Senusret III is known for his strikingly somber sculptures in which he appears careworn and grave. The capstone of the pyramid was covered with inscriptions and religious symbols. the Black Pyramid, although encased in limestone, is made of mud brick The standard coffin was rectangular and brightly painted, often including an offering formula. into natural rock. Head of pharaoh Sesostris III, made of red granite, circa 1850 BCE: Some of the sculptures of Senusret III, like this one, portray him as an aging man—a style that deviated from the standard representation of kings. The Black Pyramid, the first to house both the pharaoh and his queens, was built for Amenemhat III (r. The town was rectangular in shape and was divided internally by a mud brick wall as large and strong as the exterior walls. The block statue is a type of memorial statue that first emerged in the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. No evidence was found of a fourth wall, which may have collapsed and been washed away during the annual inundation. The block statue was sculpted from a single piece of rock. During the Middle Kingdom, relief and portrait sculpture captured subtle, individual details that reached new heights of technical perfection. People of all classes had access to this afterlife, in which they would be judged by Osiris and his council according to their deeds in life. Another change in funerary practice during this time had to do with non-royal Egyptians. A vast labor force of Canaanite settlers from the Near East aided in mining and building campaigns. The Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1650 BCE) was marked by the reunification of Egypt following a period of weak pharaonic power and civil war called the First Intermediate. Recent Class Questions. Media in category "Statues of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom" The following 48 files are in this category, out of 48 total. When Egypt had secured military and political security and vast agricultural and mineral wealth, its architecture flourished. Exceptional shabtis were of larger size, or produced as a one-of-a-kind master work. The heavy tripartite wig frames the broad face and passes behind the ears, thus giving the impression of forcing them forward. Jul 29, 2015 - Pin dedicated to the ancient Egyptian Scribes. Sunken relief on the columns and Columns that imitate lotus plants. Its moat, drawbridges, and bastions would have provided good defense against enemy attacks. Its columns hold reliefs of a very high quality, which are hardly seen elsewhere at Karnak. Egyptian eye of Horus mug coffee or tea cup. While most stelae were taller than they were wide, the slab stelae took a horizontal dimension and was used by a small list of ancient Egyptian dignitaries or their wives. 664 , 660 BC. Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty, reign of Senusret III, 1872-1853 BCE. Ancient Egyptian architects used sun-dried bricks, fine sandstone, limestone, and granite for their building purposes. Senusret III was a warrior-king who helped the Middle Kingdom reach its height of prosperity. Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty, reign of Senusret III, 1872-1853 BCE. Block statues consist of a man squatting with his knees drawn up to his chest and his arms folded on top of his knees. The head of the statue is missing, and the feet and front of the base are restored. ); D. 14.8 cm (5 13/16 in.) [1] The block statue grew in popularity in the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period, and by the Late Period, this type of statue was the most common. Three black granite statues of the pharaoh Sesotris III, seen in right profile (Twelfth Dynasty, circa 1850 BCE): Senusret III is known for his strikingly somber sculptures. Head and torso of a noblewoman (Twelfth Dynasty): This sculpture, commissioned by a noblewoman, provides evidence of gender equality among the elite during the Middle Kingdom. Block Statue of Hetep Granodiorite Saqqara, Teti Pyramid Cemetery, Tomb of Hetep Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty, Reign of Amenemhat I (1991 - 1962 BCE) Hetep served in the court of the Middle Kingdom pharaoh Amenemhat I, and built his tomb near the pyramid of the Old Kingdom ruler Teti, in whose funerary cult he also functioned. 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