According to their staining property, the granulocytes are divided into three types. Vascular tissues transport the materials from one place to the other. The lymphatic system is a part of the circulatory system, comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph unidirectionally towards the heart. They have much cytoplasm. Less amount of haemoglobin leads to anaemia. reticular. Thus iron, protein, vitamin B12 and folic acid are essential for the formation of haemoglobin and RBCs. It is usually located in the capsules and walls of the organs, the dermis of the skin and glands. This tissue is found in areas where tension is exerted from many different directions. These include glucose, fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, fats, amino acids, nucleosides, etc. They are rounded or oval disc like bodies. General Biology/Tissues and Systems/Connective Tissue. Buffer of the blood is sodium bicarbonate. These bones develop from the pre-existing cartilage and practically replace the cartilage. It also provides support and protection. Other functions are to provide strength, elasticity, support to the parts where this tissue is present. This has the same structural elements as dense regular tissue, but the bundles of collagen fibers are much thicker and arranged irregularly. When an injury is caused, the blood platelets release certain chemicals which are called the platelet factors (e.g., thromboplastin). Due to presence of abundant white fibres, the skin dermis of large mammals yields leather after chemical treatment called tanning. (c) Outer circumferential lamellae (= outer concentric lamellae): These lamellae occur inner to periosteum. This tissue is mainly made up of much thicker branched loose network of yellow fibres. It is named so because it takes the form of fine threads crossing each other in every direction leaving small spaces called areolae. Lymphocytes are produced mainly in lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, bone marrow and Peyer’s patches of small intestine. Relies on diffusion for nutrition and waste removal. (ii) Yellow Elastic Fibrocartilage (Fig. It produces red blood corpuscles, white blood corpuscles (monocytes, eosinophil’ss, basophils and neutrophils) and platelets. a cavity called bone marrow cavity is present inner to the endosteum. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Blood is a bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances, such as nutrients and oxygen, to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. Connective tissue disease refers to a group of disorders involving the protein-rich tissue that supports organs and other parts of the body. With the tensile strength of collagen, this tissue forms tendons, aponeurosis and ligaments. Lymphatic capillaries present in the intestinal villi are called lacteals which are associated with absorp­tion and transportation of fat and fat soluble vitamins. These disorders often involve the joints, muscles, and skin, but they can also involve other organs and organ systems, including the eyes, heart, lungs, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and blood vessels. Excessive accumulation of fat is called adiposis. (i) White Fibrous Cartilage or White Fibrocartilage: The matrix is firm and has abundant white fibres. This tissue consists of star-shaped reticular cells whose protoplasmic processes join to form a cellular network. The English word "tissue" derives from the French word "tissue", meaning that something that is "woven", from the verb tisse, "to weave". Common examples of connective tissues include tendons, adipose tissue, and cartilage. It is like a "cellular glue" that gives your body parts their shape and helps keep them strong. Connective tissues can have various levels of vascularity. This tissue forms the fascia, which is a fibrous membrane that wraps around the muscles, blood vessels, and nerves. The WBCs are larger than the RBCs. Increased TLC shows that there is acute bacterial infection. It is composed of proteoglycans and cell adhesion proteins that allow the connective tissue to act as glue for the cells to attach to the matrix. The granules are not found in the cytoplasm of these cells. (b) Leucocytes (White Blood Corpuscles or WBCs): The number of leucocytes per micro-litre of blood is called the total leucocyte count (TLC). 2. Be­sides the lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus gland, spleen and Peyer’s patches are the other lymphoidal organs. What are the factors which induce heart failure? This is similar to hyaline cartilage but is more elastic in nature. Haemoglobin is less in women due to menstruation. The hard outer layer of bones is composed of compact bone tissue, so-called due to its minimal gaps and spaces. There are more than 200 disorders that affect the connective tissue. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. On the basis of the above description, the general functions of blood are: (10) Prevention of Excessive Loss of Blood. Examples: os cordis in the heart of some ruminants (e.g., deer), os penis in the penis of most bats, insectivores, rodents (e.g., rats), carnivores (e.g., dog, walrus), whales, some primates (not man), os clitoris in the clitoris of many carnivores, and os palpebrae in the eyelids of crocodiles. Fat cells can be seen in small groups. Erythrocytes (red blood corpuscles) and plate­lets are absent in lymph. In old age the bone marrow of the cranial bones undergo degeneration and is then called gelatinous marrow. Due to the presence of yellow fibres, the cartilage becomes more flexible. It has relatively high compressive strength, but poor tensile strength, and very low shear stress strength. … Share Your PDF File This is especially seen in the arterial blood vessels and walls of the bronchial tubes. These bones are formed in the tendons at the joints. A normal adult man and woman have 5 and 4.5 million RBCs per cubic millimetre of blood respectively. These lamellae occur around the Haversian canals. If a bone is dried, its organic matter (living matter) is destroyed and inorganic part is left behind. Connective tissue (CT) is a one of the four main classes of tissues. Cartilage is usually described as an avascular (without blood supply) tissue but it is not true. 5. Loose Connective Tissue 2. They represent the rupture of subepidermal connective tissue as a result of abdominal distension, either recent or remote. It occurs in the intervertebral discs where it acts as cushion and in the pubic symphysis (region between the two pubic bones of the pelvic girdle) where it helps in parturition (process of birth). Elastic fibers are long, thin fibers that form branching network in the extracellular matrix. The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Connective tissue has three main components: Together the ground substance and fibers make up the extracellular matrix. In the early few weeks of embryonic life, primitive nucleated RBCs are produced in the yolk sac. During rains haemopoiesis also occurs in bone marrow due to an active life of frog. The nucleus is bean-shaped. It is found in the intervertebral discs of the bony vertebrae and knee meniscus. Connective tissue fibers provide support. The yellow elastic connective tissue forms cords called ligaments which join bones to bones. Increase and decrease in the number of platelets is known as thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia respectively. These cells are often called signet ring cells because they resemble a signet rang when seen in cross sec­tion. It is due to the fact that women undergo menstruation. 1. Epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. It consists of a network of thin and irregularly longi­tudinal and tranverse bony bars called trabeculae covered by the endosteum. It also helps in defending against infection. This enables them to squeeze out of blood capillaries into the tissues (extra vascular regions). This cartilage is found in supra scapula of pectoral girdle of frog and vertebrae of shark. These tissues are widely distributed and serve as a universal packing material between other tissues. Both mast cells and basophils liberate histamine, heparin as well as smaller quantities of bradykinin and serotonin. Image Source: … This is considered a specialized form of connective tissue. In this video we're gonna talk about epithelial tissue and connective tissue. They are a loose array of random fibers that has a wide variety of … 6. Both an inner lining and an outer lining. Privacy Policy3. (d) Inner circumferential lamellae (= inner concentric lamellae): It is present outer to the bone marrow cavity. Your connective tissue supports many different parts of your body, such as your skin, eyes, and heart. Platelets are formed from the megakaryocytes (very large cells of the bone marrow). The granu­locytes and monocytes are formed only in bone marrow. But from birth onwards, RBCs are produced by bone marrow (throughout life). Examples of structures composed of fibrous connective tissue are ligaments, tendons, and the capsules (coverings) around certain organs. When you think about epithelial tissue you can think about it as a lining. Cartilage is also an important connective tissue as it helps in smoothening the bone surfaces at the joints. In fact bone marrow is a special kind of tissue which is called myelogenous or myeloid tissue. Lymphocytes are, however, formed in thymus, some in spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils and Peyer’s patches. Connective tissue is made up of a few cells present in the intercellular framework of protein fibres secreted by the cells, known as collagen or elastin. Three types of fibers are found in connective tissue: Collagen: Collagen fibers are the strongest and most abundant of all the connective tissue fibers. (12) Maintenance of Physiological Co­operation. The white fibrous con­nective tissue forms cords called tendons which connect the skeletal muscles with the bones. Vascular tissues are motile connective tissues consisting of fluid matrix and free cells. It is slightly alkaline non-living intercellular substance which constitutes about 55% part of the blood. It is similar to that of blood but has fewer blood proteins, less calcium and phosphorus and high glucose concentration. They stain weakly with both acid and basic stains. This tissue gives bones their smooth, white, and solid appearance, and accounts for 80% of the total bone mass of an adult skeleton. 4 Main Tissue Types Tissue and Distinctive Features Tissue and Distinctive Features Epithelium: Tightly packed cells that cover and line body surfaces. Deficiency of any of these nutrients can cause anaemia. Cartilage is an example of a connective tissue. (ii) Investing or Dermal or Membrane Bones: These bones develop in the dermis of the skin as thin plates and sink to get attached over the original cartilaginous endoskeleton. Read more: Connective Tissue (CT) Disease Article Lymph maintains the volume of the blood. They have coarse granules. The types of cells found in connective tissue vary depending on the type of tissue they support. This is known as a connective tissue disorder. In mammals thrombocytes are called blood platelets. Mature RBCs are without cell organelles such as nucleus, mito­chondria and ER. Haemoglobin is a conjugated protein. As stated earlier, the areolar tissue is the most widely distributed connective tissue in the body. The second category includes those where the connective tissue is the target of antibodies directed against it. (a) Hyaline Cartilage (hyalos = glass’, Fig. The main salts found in the ma­trix are calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, sodium chloride and magnesium phosphate. Specialised Connective Tissues. 7.28). Ground substance is a clear, colorless, viscous fluid that fills the space between the cells and fibers. Description of matrix, fibres and cells has already been given in the general structure of connective tissue. Platelets are 2-3 micro-meters in diameter. This tissue is present in the skin. As stated above blood is composed of a watery fluid called plasma and floating bodies termed formed elements {e.g., blood corpuscles). In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ. They are 7-8 pm in diameter. They constitute about 7 to 8% part of plasma. The matrix is tough containing both inorganic and organic substances. With the help of canaliculi and protoplasmic processes one osteocyte is in contact with another osteocyte. Sometimes matrix con­tains granules of calcium carbonate, then the cartilage is called calcified cartilage. Blood. Elastin is found in the ligaments and skin. Mixed connective tissue disease Osteosclerosis with ichthyosis and premature ovarian failure Pacman dysplasia Paget disease of bone - Not a rare disease Paget disease of bone, familial Polymyositis Progressive deafness with stapes fixation Rheumatoid factor-negative juvenile idiopathic arthritis (vi) Conducting heat to skin for dissipation and. connective tissue meaning: 1. the strong material that supports and connects the organs in the body and is also found in the…. In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in a liquid called blood plasma. This is loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. It is a thick and tough sheath that forms an envelope around the bone. There are two types of adipose tissue: white (or yellow) fat and brown fat. cushions joints and organs,insulates, stores energy. of humerus). The adipose cells of brown fat are multilocular, each cell with several small fat globules. They are flat and non-nucleated fragments of the cells. Examples of connective tissue are fat, bone, and cartilage. The cartilage tissue has widely spaced cells. Loose areolar connective tissue. It provides strong support while providing pads for shock absorption. To understand why connective tissue is so important, lets take a close look at the various kinds of connective tissue, along with some examples. Abnormal increase of WBCs is in malignancies like leukemia (blood cancer). Microscopic Structure of Decalcified Mammalian Bone: It consists of four parts: periosteum, matrix, endosteum and bone marrow. Each adipose cell contains fat globules, due to which the nucleus and the cytoplasm are displaced to the periphery. Spongy bone contains red bone marrow but it is without Haversian systems. The reticular fibres are present on the reticular cells. Connective tissue is composed primarily of two elements: cells and a matrix. Its function is to maintain the shape of the structure while allowing flexibility. In addition to above mentioned connective tissues, mucoid tissue occurs as a foetal or embryonic connective tissue. Hyaline cartilage forms the skeleton of elasmobranch fishes (cartilaginous fishes) and the embryonic skeleton in bony vertebrates. Most of the embryonic skeleton consists of hyaline cartilage. A connective tissue disease is any disease that affects the parts of the body that connect the structures of the body together. The nucleus is usually three lobed. Adipocytes are fat cells found in adipose tissue, or fat. A gelatin-like substance obtained from cartilage by boiling is called chondrin. In tadpoles kidneys are also haemopoietic. It consists essentially of water, proteoglycans (proteins and carbohydrates), some lipid, collagen, non-collagenous protein, and collagen fibres. The presence of white fibrous tissue at the joints between skull bones makes them immovable. They are motile and phagocytic in nature and engulf bacteria and cellular debris. Pointed Science. This tissue is most widely distributed connective tissue in the animal body. Bone tissue is also called the osseous tissue. Loose and dense connective tissue are distinguished by the ratio of ground substance to fibrous tissue. In mammals, yolk sac (an embryonic membrane), liver, bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen and thymus are the heomopoietic organs in the embryo. The Science of Acupuncture. The matrix of the bone occurs as layers called lamellae. The matrix is without fibres. It is found at the ends of long bones (epiphyses). Only Camel and lama possess oval RBCs. They are the largest of all types of leucocytes and somewhat amoeboid in shape. It is found more abundantly in vertebrate embryos because most of the bones forming skeleton of the adult are cartilaginous in the early stage. Thus bone may be studied in two forms: decalcified and dried. It is a major part of the embryonic skeleton, the costal cartilages of the ribs, and the cartilage of the nose, trachea, and larynx. Connective tissue is the most abundant and widely distributed of the primary tissues. In later embryonic stage, RBCs are mainly produced by the liver and spleen. Bundles of periosteal collagen fibres, called Sharpey’s fibres, penetrate the bone matrix to provide a firm connection between the two. It is made of many kinds of proteins. This is a flexible connective tissue found in many areas in the bodies of humans and other animals, including the joints between bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the elbow, the knee, the ankle, the bronchial tubes, and the intervertebral discs. This type of growth is called bidirec­tional growth. The following points highlight the three main types of connective tissues. Describe the main characteristics and functions of connective tissue. 7.19): It contains clear, large amount of translucent, slightly elastic matrix with less fibres. The cytoplasm in these cells is pushed to a peripheral layer containing nucleus. These are floating amoeboid cells, the leucocytes (white blood corpuscles), which are mostly lymphocytes. It is found in the shaft of long bones. On the basis of its texture, a bone is of two types: compact and spongy (cancellate). And fibroblasts are cells found in large quantities in many different types of connective tissues. The matrix ca… There are several types of connective tissue disease. Connective tissue can be broadly classified into connective tissue proper and special connective tissue. A Hav­ersian canal with its surrounding lamellae and osteocytes constitute a cylindrical unit of bone called Haversian system or osteon. Matrix and some other cells such as macrophages, lymphocytes and adipose cells are also present (Fig. It comprises a basic protein globin joined to a non protein group heme, hence the name haemoglobin is given. Normal life span of blood platelets is about a week. Adipose tissue (a type of supporting connective tissue that cushions, stores excess fat and energy; contains reticular cells and reticular fibers) Hemopoietic or lymphatic tissue (a fluid connective tissue involved in blood cell production; contains leukocytes and fibers of soluble liquid proteins formed during clotting; extracellular portion is plasma) support and binding of body parts. The reticular tissue is limited to certain sites in the body, such as internal frameworks that can support lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. It produces blood corpuscles in emergency, i.e., at the time of excessive loss of blood; when it changes into red bone marrow. White fibrous connective tissue has great strength, however, its flexibility is limited. Rise in WBC count is termed leucocytosis. Cartilage is composed of specialized cells called chondroblasts and, unlike other connective tissues, cartilage does not contain blood vessels. 100 ml of blood contains about 15 mg of haemoglobin. Share Your Word File The perichon­drium contains blood vessels. Solids form about 8% of the plasma. They are nonphagocytic. Blood platelets are really cell fragments rather than true cells. In some conditions, such as folic acid deficiency, the total count of WBC decreases. Like to the timber framing of a house, the connective tissue provides structure and support throughout the body. Dense connective tissue is divided into 1) dense regular, 2) dense irregular, 3) elastic. The life of the granulocytes once released from the bone marrow is normally 4 to 8 hours circulating in the blood and another 4 to 5 days in the tissues. Iron and proteins are necessary raw materials for the synthesis of haemoglobin. Their size is from 12 to 20 µm. Chromatophores simply phagocytise the melanin from melanocytes like macrophages. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue. So for example, epithelial tissue … It contains yellow bone marrow and has Haversian systems. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge Adipose connective tissues are large fat located underneath the skin. These include ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatine, creati­nine, etc. Each Haversian canal contains an artery, a vein, a lymph vessel, a nerve and some bone cells, all packed in with connective tissue. Decrease in the number of RBCs is called erythrocytopenia which causes oxygen shortage in the blood and tissues. of 72. bone connective tissue connective tissue human body bone histology human bone microscopic cells tissue regeneration connective tissue cells medicine structure tissue microscope vitamin infographics fiber skin. 7,143 connective tissue stock photos, vectors, and illustrations are available royalty-free. White fibrous cartilage is the strongest cartilage (Fig. It is technically composed of roughly only 80% fat. It is a pale yellow but transparent and clear fluid. Answer Now and help others. It is part of the skin dermis area and in the joint capsules of the limbs. Loose connective tissue has much more ground substance and a relative lack of fibrous tissue, while the reverse is true of dense connectiv… Cartilage canals may play a role in the ossification (formation of bones) of cartilage by carrying bone forming cells. These molecules form a firm gel that gives firm consistency to the ground substance of the cartilage. They can change their shape like Amoeba and are thus, capable of amoeboid movement. of femur) and humeri (pi. Liver also produces lymph. The most common affected areas are joints, muscles, and skin. However, it is commonly found in the body of adult vertebrates. (A) Areolar Tissue (= Loose connective tissue): Type # 3. Collagen fibers are fibrous proteins and are secreted into the extracellular space and they provide high tensile strength to the matrix. The nucleus is two lobed. Your organs, eyes, nervous system, and blood vessels can also be affected. Connective tissue is divided into four main categories: Connective tissue proper has two subclasses: loose and dense. Carbon dioxide combines with potassium carbonate of the red blood corpuscles to form potassium bicarbonate in the presence of an enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Connective tissue is the most common kind of tissue out of all of the primary kinds of tissue (epithelial, muscular, connective, a… These molecules cannot pass into the narrow blood capillaries but can diffuse into the lymphatic capillaries. The carbohydrates are chemically glycosaminoglycan’s (GAG). Hemocytoblasts in red bone marrow give rise to ma­ture RBCs. An osteocyte is surrounded by a fluid-filled space, the bone lacuna, which leads into fine radiating channels, the canaliculi (minute canals). They destroy bacteria, viruses and toxic substances that may enter into the blood from outside. 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